The first halfpence produced at 40 to the pound about 175 grains of copper per coin,
which meant the copper content was worth about half the face value of the coin. These coins were the first royal coinage to have an intrinsic value less than their face value. Charles II displayed a bust right (that is, a right profile) on all his gold and silver coins but used a bust left on copper.
The first copper halfpenny was struck during 1672 in the reign of Charles II, & in 1673 & 1675. Then in William & Mary reign 1694 and beautiful patterns were struck. William III the halfpenny was badly struck from poor quality blanks and a number cast. The abundance of copper halfpennies were in circulation that in Queen Anne reign none were struck, there were patterns prepared and experimental pieces by the mint.
George I there was shortage and a new high quality were minted in 1717, 1719 & 1724.
George II 1729-1754 with an older portrait being used from 1740. 1754 no issue until 1770, with many forgeries in circulation.
George III 1770 until 1775, the next issue was Matthew Bolton who made a coinage in 1799. These coins were never issued, they were like the cartwheel style, it was thought by the bearcats that they would be popular and Bolton could not produce the quantity. 1806-7 were struck,
Trade halfpenny tokens 1787 to 1797, 1811 and 1812, private trade tokens to fill the gap left by the lack of small coinage.
George IV 1825 to 1860
George IV 1825 to 1827
William IV 1831, 1834 and 1837.
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