Coins of quality    -      The Art of Coins  
Rare British Hammered, Milled coins,Tokens,Medallions & Roman imperial sestertius, incl. the "Petition crown"

Philip & Mary questions


Philip II married Maria of Portugal, Queen Mary Tudar of England, Elizabeth of Valois, daughter of King Henrey II of France and in 1570, Anna of Austria, daughter of Emperor Maximilian II.
King Philip II fought successfully against France, he failed to conquer England failed both the Armada in 1588, sea-battle of Cádiz in 1596). Spain could not finance all the wars and eventually led to the decline of Spanish.

There are a number of interesting questions on the coinage when Philip married Mary we should remember Philip was King of Naples , but he was not yet King of Spain.

A.  Who was influencing whom?

  • It is the first time two monarchs faced each other on British coinage
  • The centre point of the coins and the marked circles are identical to the coins of Spain and Europe
  • The portraits are of a renaissance design not British
  • Lettering is similar or the same


The reverse of the Mezzo Ducato, n. d. (1554-6), Naples, crowned arms, half Spanish, half English  is the same in design including the arms , same width, just shorter in length. The frame of the arms has heavy scrolls that the English shilling. 
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